India has just completed an independent Moon mission. In Bangladesh two newspapers just reported that the US Moon landings were faked?

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I must say its hard to believe there are still people who think the moon landings might have been faked. If they were that conspiracy has now extended more than 40 years and two generations of engineers and managers as we have pictures of the landers on the moon from new probes in orbit. nasa.gov/mission_pages/LRO/multimedia/lr... is also possible to detect the laser reflectors left by the astronauts with any college level lab with the right equipment.

That said I will give the Bangladeshi's a break in one sense. It must be hard for non native english speaker, especially one from a much different culture to detect that The Onion is entirely satirical. I'm glad they recognized their error and apologized.

Well if a financial reporting giant like Forbes in the USA can be fooled by a press release involving Narnia walking out of the world trade talks

Then I don't think we judge the whole country of Bangladesh because some lazy journalists couldn't be bothered to check the news source before going with it, I don't think anyone considers either the religious background of America or its education standards to be a contributing factor for Forbes. Both cases were incredibly funny though....

The Moon landing conspiracy theories claim that some or all elements of the Apollo program and the associated Moon landings were hoaxes staged by NASA and members of other organizations. Various groups and individuals have made such conspiracy claims since the mid-1970s. The most notable claim is that the six manned landings (1969–1972) were faked and that the twelve Apollo astronauts did not walk on the Moon.

Conspiracy theorists (henceforth conspiracists) base their claims on the notion NASA and others knowingly misled the public into believing the landings happened by manufacturing, destroying, or tampering with evidence; including photos, telemetry tapes, transmissions, rock samples, and even some key witnesses. Conspiracists have managed to sustain public interest in their theories for more than 40 years despite there being much third-party evidence for the landings and detailed rebuttals to the hoax claims. 1 Polls taken in various locations have shown that between 6% and 20% of Americans surveyed believe that the manned landings were faked, rising to 28% in Russia.

Even as late as 2001, the major television network Fox broadcast a documentary named Conspiracy Theory: Did We Land on the Moon? Claiming NASA faked the first landing in 1969 to win the Space Race. Since the late 2000s, high-definition photos taken by the LROC spacecraft of the Apollo landing sites have captured the lander modules and the tracks left by the astronauts.

34 In 2012, images were released showing the Apollo flags still standing on the Moon. The first book about the subject, Bill Kaysing's self-published We Never Went to the Moon: America's Thirty Billion Dollar Swindle, was released in 1974, two years after the Apollo Moon flights had ended. The Flat Earth Society was one of the first organizations to accuse NASA of faking the landings, arguing that they were staged by Hollywood with Walt Disney sponsorship, based on a script by Arthur C.

Clarke and directed by Stanley Kubrick. Note 17 Folklorist Linda Degh suggests that writer-director Peter Hyams's 1978 film Capricorn One, which shows a hoaxed journey to Mars in a spacecraft that looks identical to the Apollo craft, may have given a boost to the hoax theory's popularity in the post-Vietnam War era. She notes that this happened during the post-Watergate era, when American citizens were inclined to distrust official accounts.

Degh writes: "The mass media catapult these half-truths into a kind of twilight zone where people can make their guesses sound as truths. Mass media have a terrible impact on people who lack guidance". 8 In A Man on the Moon, published in 1994, Andrew Chaikin mentions that at the time of Apollo 8's lunar-orbit mission in 8-5-95333, similar conspiracy ideas were already in circulation.

There are subcultures worldwide which advocate the belief that the Moon landings were faked. By 1977 the Hare Krishna magazine Back to Godhead called the landings a hoax. The reason they gave is that the Sun is 93,000,000 miles away and according to Hindu mythology the Moon is 800,000 miles farther away than that, making the Moon nearly 94,000,000 miles away.

James Oberg of ABC News said that the conspiracy theory is taught in Cuban schools and wherever Cuban teachers are sent. 1011 A poll conducted in the 1970s by the United States Information Agency in several countries in Latin America, Asia, and Africa found that most respondents were unaware of the Moon landings, many of the others dismissed them as propaganda or science fiction, and many thought that it had been the Russians that landed on the Moon. A 1999 Gallup poll found that 6% of the Americans surveyed doubted that the Moon landings happened and that 5% of those surveyed had no opinion,13141516 which roughly matches the findings of a similar 1995 Time/CNN poll.

13 Officials of Fox television said that such skepticism rose to about 20% after the 8-5-95333 airing of Fox network's TV show Conspiracy Theory: Did We Land on the Moon? Seen by about 15 million viewers. 14 This 2001 Fox special is seen as having promoted the hoax claims.

A 2000 poll held by the Russian Public Opinion Fund found that 28% of those surveyed did not believe that American astronauts landed on the Moon, and this percentage is roughly equal in all social-demographic groups. 19 In 2009, a poll held by the United Kingdom's Engineering & Technology magazine found that 25% of those surveyed did not believe that men landed on the Moon. 20 Another poll gives that 25% of 18–25-year-olds surveyed were unsure that the landings happened.

Those who believe the landings were faked give several theories about the motives of NASA and the United States government. The three main theories are below. The US government deemed it vital that it win the Space Race against the Soviet Union.

Going to the Moon would be risky and expensive, as exemplified by John F. Kennedy famously stating that the United States chose to go because it was hard. A main reason for the race to the Moon was the Cold War.

Philip Plait says in Bad Astronomy that the Soviets—with their own competing Moon program and a formidable scientific community able to analyze NASA data—would have cried foul if the United States tried to fake a Moon landing,23 especially since their own program had failed. Proving a hoax would have been a huge propaganda win for the Soviets. However, the Soviets had been sending unmanned spacecraft to the Moon since 1959,25 and "during 1962, deep space tracking facilities were introduced at IP-15 in Ussuriisk and IP-16 in Evpatoria, while Saturn communication stations were added to IP-3, 4 and 14",26 the latter having a 100 million km range.

27 The Soviet Union tracked the Apollo missions at the Space Transmissions Corps, which was "fully equipped with the latest intelligence-gathering and surveillance equipment". 28 Vasily Mishin, in an interview for the article "The Moon Programme That Faltered" (Spaceflight, 1/10, vol. 33, 2–3), describes how the Soviet Moon program dwindled after the Apollo landings.

It is claimed that NASA faked the landings to forgo humiliation and to ensure that it continued to get funding. NASA raised about US$30 billion to go to the Moon, and Bill Kaysing claims that this could have been used to "pay off" many people. 29 Since most conspiracists believe that sending men to the Moon was impossible at the time, they argue that landings had to be faked to fulfill President Kennedy's 1961 promise: "achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth".

22 Others have claimed that, with all the known and unknown hazards,30 NASA would not have risked the public humiliation of astronauts crashing to their deaths on the Moon, broadcast on live TV. It is claimed that the landings helped the US government because they were a popular distraction from the Vietnam War; and so manned landings suddenly ended about the same time that the US ended its role in the Vietnam War. Some have argued that one of the main motives of the conspiracists is to make money from pseudoscience.

In 8-5-95337, actor Tom Hanks, who starred in the movie Apollo 13 and produced the documentary From the Earth to the Moon, was asked what he thought of the conspiracy theories. He replied: "We live in a society where there is no law against making money in the promulgation of ignorance or, in some cases, stupidity". An unsuccessful attempt was made to sue astronaut Jim Lovell (Apollo 8 and Apollo 13) because he said that he went to the Moon.

Bill Kaysing (1922–2005) – an ex-employee of Rocketdyne,34 the company which built the F-1 engines used on the Saturn V rocket. Kaysing was not technically qualified, and worked at Rocketdyne as a librarian. Kaysing's self-published book, We Never Went to the Moon: America's Thirty Billion Dollar Swindle,3536 made many allegations, effectively beginning the discussion of the Moon landings being faked.

Kaysing maintains that, despite close monitoring by the USSR, it would have been easier for NASA to fake the Moon landings, thereby guaranteeing success, than for NASA to really go there. He claimed that the chance of a successful manned landing on the Moon was calculated to be 0.017%. 37 NASA and others have debunked the claims made in the book.

Bart Sibrel (1964-) – a filmmaker, produced and directed four films for his company AFTH,38 including a film in 2001 called A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Moon,39 examining the evidence of a hoax. The arguments that Sibrel puts forward in this film have been debunked by many sources, including Svector's video series Lunar Legacy,40 which disproves the documentary's main argument that the Apollo crew faked their distance from the Earth command module, while in low orbit. Sibrel has said that the effect on the shot covered in his film was made through the use of a transparency of the Earth.

Some parts of the original footage, according to Sibrel, were not able to be included on the official releases for the media. On such allegedly censored parts, the correlation between Earth and Moon Phases can be clearly confirmed, refuting Sibrel's claim that these shots were faked. On 8-5-95337 Sibrel was punched in the face by Buzz Aldrin after Sibrel confronted Aldrin with his theories41 and accused the former astronaut of being "a coward, and a liar, and a thief".

The Los Angeles County district attorney's office refused to file charges against Aldrin, saying that he had been provoked by Sibrel. Brian – a nuclear engineer who self-published a book in 1982 called Moongate: Suppressed Findings of the U.S. Space Program, in which he disputes the Moon's surface gravity. David Percy – TV producer and expert in audiovisual technologies and member of the Royal Photographic Society.

He is co-writer, along with Mary Bennett of Dark Moon: Apollo and the Whistle-Blowers (ISBN 1-898541-10-8) and co-producer of What Happened On the Moon?. He is the main proponent of the 'whistle-blower' accusation, arguing that mistakes in the NASA photos are so obvious that they are evidence that insiders are trying to 'blow the whistle' on the hoax by knowingly adding mistakes that they know will be seen. Ralph René (1933-2008) – an inventor and 'self taught' engineering buff.

Writer of NASA Mooned America (second edition OCLC 36317224). 1998) – American journalist and writer, producer of the video Was It Only a Paper Moon? Jack White (1927-2012) – American photo historian known for his attempt to prove forgery in photos related to the assassination of US President John F.

Marcus Allen – British publisher of Nexus who said that photographs of the lander would not prove that the US put men on the Moon. He said, "Getting to the Moon really isn't much of a problem – the Russians did that in 1959, the big problem is getting people there". He suggests that NASA sent robot missions because radiation levels in space would be deadly.

44 Another variant on this is the idea that NASA and its contractors did not recover quickly enough from the Apollo 1 fire, and so all the early Apollo missions were faked, with Apollo 14 or 15 being the first real mission. Aron Ranen – states in his documentary film Did We Go? (2005) that "right now I'm about 75% believing we went".

However, on 8-5-95338, Ranen appeared on the show Geraldo at Large to argue that no one has landed on the Moon. Clyde Lewis – radio talk show host. David Groves – works for Quantech Image Processing and worked on some of the NASA photos.

He examined the photo of Aldrin emerging from the lander and said he can pinpoint when a spotlight was used. Using the focal length of the camera's lens and an actual boot, he allegedly calculated, using ray-tracing, that the spotlight is between 24 to 36 centimetres (9.4 to 14 in) to the right of the camera. 47 This matches with the sunlit part of Armstrong's spacesuit.

Yuri Mukhin – Russian opposition politician, publicist and writer of the book The Moon Affair of the USA (2006) in which he denies all Moon landing evidence and accuses the US government of plundering the money paid by the American taxpayers for the Moon program. He also claims the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and some Soviet scientists helped NASA fake the landings. Alexander Popov – Russian doctor of physical-mathematical sciences and writer of the book Americans on the Moon – A Great Breakthrough or a Space Affair?

(Moscow, 2009, ISBN 978-5-9533-3315-3) in which he aims to prove that Saturn V was in fact a camouflaged Saturn 1B50 and denies all Moon landing evidence. Stanislav Pokrovsky – Russian candidate of technical sciences and General Director of a scientific-manufacturing enterprise Project-D-MSK who calculated that the real speed of the Saturn V rocket at S-IC staging time was only half of what was declared. His analysis appears to assume that the solid rocket plumes from the fuselage and retro rockets on the two stages came to an instant halt in the surrounding air so they can be used to estimate the velocity of the rocket.

He ignored high altitude winds and the altitude at staging, 67 km, where air is about 1/10,000 as dense as at sea level, and claimed that only a loop around the Moon was possible, not a manned landing on the Moon with return to Earth. He also allegedly found the reason for this – problems with the Inconel superalloy used in the F-1 engine. Philippe Lheureux – French writer of Moon Landings: Did NASA Lie?

And Lights on the Moon: Did NASA Lie? (Lumières sur la Lune: La NASA a-t-elle menti?). He said that astronauts did land on the Moon but to stop other states from benefiting from scientific information in the real photos, NASA published fake images.

Many conspiracy theories have been put forward. They either claim that the landings did not happen and that NASA employees (and sometimes others) have lied; or that the landings did happen but not in the way that has been told. Conspiracists have focused on perceived gaps or inconsistencies in the historical record of the missions.

The foremost idea is that the whole manned landing program was a hoax from start to end. Some claim that the technology to send men to the Moon was lacking or that the Van Allen radiation belts, solar flares, solar wind, coronal mass ejections and cosmic rays made such a trip impossible. Vince Calder and Andrew Johnson, scientists from Argonne National Laboratory, gave detailed answers to the conspiracists' claims on the laboratory's website.

56 They show that NASA's portrayal of the Moon landing is fundamentally accurate, allowing for such common mistakes as mislabeled photos and imperfect personal recollections. Using the scientific process, any hypothesis that is contradicted by the observable facts may be rejected. The 'real landing' hypothesis is a single story since it comes from a single source, but there is no unity in the hoax hypothesis because hoax accounts vary between conspiracists.

According to James Longuski (Professor of Aeronautics and Astronautics Engineering at Purdue University), the conspiracy theories are impossible because of their size and complexity. The conspiracy would have to involve the more than 400,000 people who worked on the Apollo project for nearly ten years, the 12 men who walked on the Moon, the six others who flew with them as Command Module Pilots, and another six astronauts who orbited the Moon. Note 2 Hundreds of thousands of people—including astronauts, scientists, engineers, technicians, and skilled laborers—would have had to keep the secret.

Longuski argues that it would have been much easier to really land on the Moon than to generate such a huge conspiracy to fake the landings. 5859 To date, nobody from the US government or NASA who would have had a link to the Apollo program has said the Moon landings were hoaxes. Penn Jillette made note of this in the "Conspiracy Theories" episode of his contrarian television show Penn & Teller: Bullshit!

He said that, with the number of people that would have had to be involved, someone would have outed the hoax by now. With the government's track record of keeping secrets (noting Watergate), Jillette said the government could not have silenced everyone if the landings were faked. Conspiracists focus heavily on NASA photos.

They point to oddities in photos and films taken on the Moon. Photography experts (even those unrelated to NASA) answer that the oddities are what one would expect from a real Moon landing, and not what would happen with tweaked or studio imagery. Some of the main arguments and counter-arguments are listed below.

In some photos, crosshairs seem to be behind objects.

I cant really gove you an answer,but what I can give you is a way to a solution, that is you have to find the anglde that you relate to or peaks your interest. A good paper is one that people get drawn into because it reaches them ln some way.As for me WW11 to me, I think of the holocaust and the effect it had on the survivors, their families and those who stood by and did nothing until it was too late.

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